2. Placement models practice

Placement models

There are three typical placement models:

  • Program-based  (“train & place”)
  • Place & train (Supported employment)
  • Case co-ordination

Program-based  (“train & place”)

The program-based model arose from hospital-based rehabilitation centres and focuses on the pre-placement phase, including intensive work-skills rehabilitation and intervention within a health-based facility. Most commonly, clients attend a structured outpatient program for a number of weeks, participating in individual and/or group therapies with emphasis on cognitive, behavioural, psychosocial, and/or meta-cognitive skills as well as education to families and employers, targeting RTW goals

Place & train (Supported employment)

Place and train (known as ‘supported employment’ in the US literature) developed within the disability field in the late 1970’s and was later applied to ABI in the 1990’s: individuals are first placed into a job, then all the components of vocational training, counselling and support are applied at the job site while the person is actively employed. Components of Individual Place and Train intervention include sourcing an appropriate work environment, job placement, job-site training and advocacy, ongoing assessment, and retention/monitoring

Case co-ordination

Case co-ordination is the most contemporary approach to VR for clients with ABI, involving the integration of medical and vocational rehabilitation, through the introduction of a vocational counsellor into the rehabilitation service.  Programs are designed to suit specific individual needs and provide opportunities to access other VR elements such as work trials or supported employment programs through referral to external services.


VIP is based on a hybrid model drawing on components from both the ‘Place and train’ and ‘Case co-ordination’ approach.






Steve returns to work

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